St. Marks Lighthouse – Florida


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St. Marks Lighthouse – Florida

St. Marks Lighthouse Florida

The St. Marks Lighthouse, located in the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge in Florida, is one of the oldest and most picturesque lighthouses in the state. Built in 1831, this historic lighthouse has played a crucial role in guiding ships safely through the hazardous waters of Apalachee Bay for nearly two centuries. Its enduring presence is a testament to the maritime history and natural beauty of Florida’s Gulf Coast.

Construction of St. Mark’s Lighthouse

The lighthouse stands at 82 feet tall and is constructed from brick and coated with stucco, featuring a conical shape typical of 19th-century lighthouse design. The tower is painted white, providing a stark and striking contrast against the lush green surroundings of the refuge and the blue waters of the bay. Its original lens was a fourth-order Fresnel lens, which greatly improved the range and visibility of the light, making it a vital navigational aid for mariners navigating the shallow and treacherous waters of the Gulf.

Initial Use

Initially, St. Marks Lighthouse was lit with whale oil.  Later it transitioned to kerosene before being electrified in the 20th century. The lighthouse has endured numerous challenges over the years, including hurricanes, coastal erosion, and even an attack during the Civil War when Confederate forces attempted to disable the light to hinder Union naval operations. Despite these challenges, the lighthouse is meticulously maintained.  It is fully restored, preserving its historical integrity and functionality.

Lighthouse Location

The lighthouse is located within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, a 70,000-acre sanctuary established in 1931 to protect migratory birds and other wildlife. The refuge offers a diverse range of habitats, including marshes, swamps, and forests, making it a haven for birdwatchers, nature enthusiasts, and photographers. Visitors to the refuge can enjoy miles of hiking and biking trails, as well as opportunities for fishing, kayaking, and wildlife observation.

Visiting the Lighthouse

One of the highlights of visiting the St. Marks Lighthouse is the chance to explore the surrounding refuge and experience its natural beauty. The area is particularly renowned for its birdwatching opportunities, with over 300 species of birds recorded, including the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and the elusive whooping crane. The refuge also provides critical habitat for numerous other species, including alligators, black bears, and a variety of migratory waterfowl.


The lighthouse itself is a popular attraction within the refuge, drawing visitors who are interested in its historical significance and architectural charm. While the tower is not always open to the public, special events and guided tours occasionally provide access to the interior, allowing visitors to climb to the top for panoramic views of the bay and surrounding landscape. The adjacent keeper’s quarters, though no longer standing, are remembered through interpretive displays and historical markers that offer insights into the lives of the lighthouse keepers and their families.


The St. Marks Lighthouse is not just a navigational aid but also a symbol of the region’s maritime heritage and natural beauty. Its continued operation and preservation are a testament to the dedication of the community and the importance of maintaining historical landmarks for future generations. Whether you are a history buff, a nature lover, or simply seeking a peaceful retreat, a visit to the St. Marks Lighthouse and the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge offers a rich and rewarding experience that captures the essence of Florida’s Gulf Coast.

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